Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico.
Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental.
The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations.
Monterrey is one of the wealthiest cities in Mexico, it is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, Monterrey is considered one of the most developed cities in the entire country and often regarded as the most “americanized” in Mexico.
The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth.
Monterrey Coat of Arms is represented by an Indian throw an arrow to the sun in front of cerro de la silla mountain, this scene represent the natives ceremony, they daily form a row in front cerro de la silla and wait the sunrise to throw one arrows, each one to the sun.
Monterrey was also the point of emigration from Europe, people from Portugal, Spain, France, Russia went to Monterrey seeing it as a good place to live in.
Prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados.
In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area largely unexplored by the Spanish colonizers.
The first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, naming the city Santa Lucia, but were unsuccessful because the population was attacked by the natives and fled.
The Spanish expeditionary of Sephardic Jewish descent, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain, which would be called Nuevo León, the “New Kingdom of León”.
In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia (named for Saint Louis IX of France) within present-day Monterrey.
The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya (“New Biscay”, now State of Chihuahua), and around 1,000 kilometers northwards.
For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of thirteen families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey (“Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey”) on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now located.
During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio (now in Texas), Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico’s port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories’ trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies (British and French).
After Mexican Independence (19th century)
In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation, especially due to its balanced ties between Europe (with its connections to Tampico), the United States (with its connections to San Antonio), and the capital (through Saltillo).
In 1824, the “New Kingdom of León” became the State of Nuevo León, and Monterrey was selected as its capital. However, the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the Governor of the State annexed the Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U.S. forces during the first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center.
Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño.
During the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. It was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital which is now one of the best public hospitals in the northeast of Mexico, and serves as medical school support to the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL). Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, In 1890 the brewery company Cervecería Cuauthemoc one of the milestone local enterprises was founded and in 1900, a steel-producing company that accelerated the already fast industrialization of the city and became one of the world’s biggest of its time. In 1986, several official games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted.
In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city; the Santa Catarina River overflowed, causing about 100 deaths and economic damage.
The city has hosted international events such as the 2002 United Nations Conference on Financing for Development with the participation of more than 50 heads of state and government, as well as other ministers and senior delegates from over 150 countries. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation. In 2004, the OAS Special Summit of the Americas was attended by almost all the presidents of the Americas.
In 2007, Monterrey held the Universal Forum of Cultures with four million visitors. In 2008, Monterrey held the FINA World Junior Championships.
In 2010, Monterrey was hit by another damaging storm, Hurricane Alex. Alex was considered worse than Hurricane Gilbert, with record breaking rain bringing floods, and causing severe economic damage. Damage estimates totaled $1.885 billion USD, and in $16.9 billion MXN. After this event the city was under reconstruction and urban renewal. Recently, the project Nuevo León Development Plan 2030 was presented, along with some other metropolitan projects.
In August 2011 the city was the scene of a terror attack on a casino, in which more than 50 people were killed.
On January 18, 2017, a Spree shooting occurred at Colegio Americano del Noreste where a high school student shoot three of his fellow mates and teacher to later shoot himself and die of brain death at hospital.
In 2005, Monterrey was ranked one of the safest cities in Mexico, and one of the two safest in 2006. However, since 2008 the city has experienced violence related to turf battles between warring drug cartels in Mexico. The year 2011 has been the most violent in history. Drug dealers are a major concern, although military offensives and police captures of important drug-cartel chiefs have weakened drug cartels trying to settle in the city. The city is safe to travel by day and night; nevertheless, precaution and common sense should be considered in certain districts at night.
There are two police departments guarding the city, the Police of the City of Monterrey (locally known as the Policía Regia), dependent of the municipal government, and the State Public Safety. The Policía Regia protects the city’s downtown and main areas, while the State Public Safety is in charge of the farthest areas. Since the attack to the Casino Royale in 2011, the security has been reinforced by military and federal police.
The city of Monterrey is 540 metres (1,770 ft) above sea level and located in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León. The Santa Catarina River—dry most of the year on the surface but with flowing underground water—bisects Monterrey from East to West, thus separating the city into north and south halves, and drains the city to the San Juan River and Rio Grande.
Monterrey is adjoined to San Nicolás de los Garza, García and General Escobedo to the north; Guadalupe, Juárez and Cadereyta Jiménez to the east; Santiago to the south; and San Pedro Garza García and Santa Catarina to the west. Together, their population reaches over 4,080,329 people.
Monterrey lies north of the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range. A small hill, the Cerro del Topo and the smaller Topo Chico are located in the suburbs of San Nicolás de los Garza and Escobedo. West of the city rises the Cerro de las Mitras (Mountain of the Mitres), which resemble the profile of several bishops with their mitres.
Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain) dominates the view at the east of the city and is considered a major symbol of the city. Cerro de la Loma Larga—South of the Santa Catarina river—separates Monterrey from the suburb of San Pedro Garza García. At the summit of the Cerro del Obispado, north of the river, is the historic Bishopric Palace, site of one of the most important battles of the Mexican-American War.
The mountains surrounding Monterrey contain many canyons, trails and roads that cross deserts and forests. Suitable trails are available to the general public. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountains south of the city are included in the “Parque Nacional Cumbres de Monterrey” (National Park), which was added to UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program of Biosphere Reserves in 2006.
Cumbres de Monterrey includes:
Parque Ecológico Chipinque, which contains forested areas (oak and oak-pine mainly).
La Estanzuela state park, about 7 km (4 mi) south of Monterrey, a river and forested area.
La Huasteca, west of the city, in the municipality of Santa Catarina.
El Potrero Chico Climbing Area, north east of the city, in the municipality of Hidalgo.
Garcia Caves – these caves are situated in Garcia, Nuevo Leon and were discovered in 1843. Inside you can see amazing stalagmites formations and snail fossils.
Matacanes – can be found in the municipality of Potrero Redondo in Santiago, Nuevo Leon. It is a 10 hrs walking tour in which you can find rappel descents, underground rivers, waterfalls, among other obstacles.
Hydrophobia Canyon – similar to Matacanes with the only difference this is a 100% aquatic area.
Cascade Cola de Caballo – a spectacular waterfall in Santiago Nuevo Leon, formed by water that runs down from the mountains of nearby Parque Nacional Cumbres de Monterrey, impressive rock formations and sprawling forests.
Monterrey has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). It is one of the warmest major cities in Mexico. Summers are generally hot, spring and fall temperate, and winters mild, with temperatures rarely below freezing. The average high in August is 35 °C (95 °F) and the average low is 23 °C (73 °F). The average January high is 21 °C (70 °F) and the average low in January is 8 °C (46 °F). Rainfall is scarce in winter, but more frequent during May through September.
Monterrey frequently experiences extreme weather changes; for example, sometimes reaching 30 °C (86 °F) in January and February, despite these being the coldest months. The most extreme weather changes in summer occur with rainfall, which changes extreme heat to cooler temperatures, and the temporary absence of the northern winds in winter, which can lead to abnormally high temperatures. Seasons are not well defined; the warm season may start in February and may last until September. In April and May 2011 temperatures reached 45 °C (113 °F) or more, causing fires and extreme heat in the city, despite the fact that these months are in spring. Snow is a very rare event, although an accumulation of 20 inches (51 cm) in 8 hours occurred in January 1967. The most recent snowfall was in December 2004, on Christmas Eve. Several sleet and ice events have occurred during January 2007, December 2009, January and February 2010 and February 2011, caused by temperatures around −5 °C (23 °F).
From June 30 to July 2 of 2010, Monterrey was hit by the worst natural disaster in the city’s history when Hurricane Alex delivered more than 584 millimetres (23 in) of rain around 72 hours, with areas reaching up to 1 metre (39 in) of rain during that same period, destroying homes, avenues, highways and infrastructure, and leaving up to 200,000 families without water for a week or more. The amount of water that fell is equivalent to the average precipitation for a year period. This was about 3–4 times as much rain as when Hurricane Gilbert arrived to the city on September 15, 1988. The death toll of Hurricane Alex was estimated to be around 20.
According to the national INEGI population census of 2010, of the total population of the state of Nuevo León, 87.3% lived in the Monterrey metropolitan area.
The Monterrey metropolitan area is the third most populous city in Mexico with more than 4 million. It is composed of the adjoined municipalities of Monterrey, Apodaca, Escobedo, García, Guadalupe, Santiago, Juárez, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, and Santa Catarina.
Monterrey has the highest European heritage in Mexico, commonly French, Spanish, German heritage, Monterrey suffered of the “Pureza de Sangre” law, which all the judens were not allowed to step on the Nuevo Reino de Leòn ground.
Monterrey is connected with the United States–Mexico border, the sea and inland Mexico through different roads, including the Carretera Nacional (also known as the Panamerican Highway) that runs from Nuevo Laredo to Mexico City and south, and the Carretera Interoceánica connecting Matamoros with the port of Mazatlán on the Pacific; it is also crossed by highways 40, 45, 57. The divided highway Monterrey-Saltillo-Matehuala-Mexico City is the main land corridor to interior Mexico.
There are several between-cities bus lines at the bus station downtown. There are arrivals and departures into deeper Mexico, to the U.S. border and into the United States.
Monterrey is also connected by at least three important railroad freight lines: Nuevo Laredo-Mexico City, Monterrey-Tampico, and Monterrey-Pacific (Mazatlán).
The city has a rapid transit system called Metrorrey, which currently has 2 lines. and a BRT called Ecovia.
The city is served by two international airports: General Mariano Escobedo International Airport (served by major international carriers and moving more than 6.5 million passengers in 2007) and Del Norte International Airport, a primarily private airport.
Monterrey is linked through frequent non-stop flights to many Mexican cities and to key United States hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O’Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston-Intercontinental, JFK/New York, and Las Vegas). Monterrey is the second most important city for the operating routes of Aeroméxico.
Five airlines have their operational bases and headquarters in Monterrey, Volaris, Aeroméxico Connect, VivaAerobus and Magnicharters. There is no public transportation from Monterrey International Airport to the city. However, a cartel of taxi services link the airport with the city and charge around $20 US for a one-way ride to the city. From this airport, there is a bus shuttle to nearby Saltillo. Inter-city bus services run daily into the interior, as well as north to the US border and points beyond.
The most traditional dish from Monterrey is cabrito, kid goat cooked on embers based on the Jewish cuisine of the founders of the city.
Other local dishes and customs that perhaps date back to the Crypto-Judaism of these founders are the “semita” (bread without leavening), the capirotada dessert (a mix of cooked bread, cheese, raisins, peanuts, and crystallized sugarcane juice), and the relative absence of pork dishes.
Another famous local dish is machacado con huevo.
Carne asada on weekends remains a tradition among Monterrey families. It is usually served with grilled onions, baked potatoes and sausages or chopped as tacos.
Locally brewed beer and cola are an almost mandatory part of the weekly ritual.
The traditional desserts, “glorias” and “obleas,” made from goat milk are both traditional candies from Nuevo León.
Starting in the 1960s, Monterrey has been known for “Norteño” music which is the trademark music of the city, bands like Ramon Ayala, Pesado, Duelo and other Mexican “Regional” music bands perform at the different clubs in the city.
Monterrey has witnessed the birth of several bands that have become internationally acclaimed. Their genres vary considerably. Bands include Plastilina Mosh, Control Machete, Kinky, El Gran Silencio, Jumbo, Division Minuscula, Genitallica, 3Ball MTY, GAMA, Los Claxons.
The song “Los Oxidados” by Plastilina Mosh opened the 2005 movie Mr. & Mrs. Smith.
Santa Lucía Riverwalk, an artificial river built between 1996 and 2007. It currently joins the Macroplaza with the Fundidora Park.
The Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain).
The Macroplaza, one of the world’s largest squares, is the cultural and administrative heart of the city featuring remarkable monuments, green areas and buildings.
Faro del Comercio (Lighthouse of Commerce), another trademark of the city. This monuments beams a green laser around the city at night.
Barrio Antiguo (lit. Old neighborhood or old town) is the historical urban center of the city of Monterrey. There are preserved the old houses from the XVII, XVIII and XIX centuries. Nowadays bars, cafes, art galleries and restaurants can be found there. On November of every year the Festival Cultural Barrio Antiguo took place with national and international artists and performers, but now is replaced with the Festival Internacional de Santa Lucia, which now takes place in September.
The Museum of Modern Art is a post-modern Mexican architecture designed by Ricardo Legorreta with the objective of creating different ambiances for artists and visitors from all around the world.
Monterrey’s Inukshuk is one of only a handful of authentic examples to be found outside Canada of these stone monuments from the high Arctic. The sculpture was created in situ by the renowned Inuit artist Bill Nasogaluak in 2007 and was a gift to the state of Nuevo León from the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Government of Canada.
Fundidora Park is a large urban park that contains old foundry buildings, 120 hectares of natural ambiance, artificial lakes, playgrounds, alternative cinema (Cineteca), museum (Photo Collection, the State Plastic Arts Collection, Exhibits and Spaces), hotel, auditorium and convention center.
Puente de la Unidad (sometimes called Puente Atirantado) is a suspension bridge that crosses the Río Santa Catarina and joins San Pedro Garza García with Monterrey.
The Alfa Planetarium is the first IMAX dome built in Latin America and fourth in the world.
The Government Palace of Nuevo León is a pink marble of Neoclassical architecture where the governor’s office is located.
El Cerro del Obispado (Bishopric Hill) which includes a public, scenic lookout called Mirador del Obispado, a Monumental flag and the museum inside the Palacio del Obispado (the Bishopric Palace).
ITESM, ITESM has two distinctive buildings CEDES which houses the administration of the ITESM nationwide system and the CETEC which houses the main computer classroom and other offices.
Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma), with its 19th-century buildings and where the national Baseball Hall of Fame (Salón de la Fama) is located.
The Cola de Caballo (Horse Tail) waterfall, on the mountains near the towns of Santiago and El Cercado, about 35 km (22 mi) south.
On the way to the Cola de Caballo waterfall (Carretera Nacional going to Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas), in Santiago, the Presa Rodrigo Gomez or “La Boca” (“La Boca” Dam) lays nested between green hills.
The Museum of Mexican History is the most representative and visited museum of the North of the Republic, fulfilling its purpose of spreading the historical content of the Mexican cultural heritage.
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