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Mole Poblano – the most famous Mexican dish

For more than 300 years, Mexican housewives have been preparing the world-famous Mole Poblano sauce. Many pass down thick brown sauce recipes from generation to generation, make their own mole, or buy it pre-made.

The flavor and taste of the famous “mole” usually varies from spicy to fruity-sweet, and its color palette spans from chocolate hues to almost pitch-black, depending on the region, and the intricacies of the used ingredients.

Having tried Mole Poblano, with its enchanting blend of magical, chocolatey, delicate aroma and unique taste unlike anything else, you most likely will not be able to determine what array of ingredients it is made from.

The story of Mole Poblano

Among the multiple myths and legends that surround the Mole Poblano (“Mole from Puebla”), a story stands out that the famous “mole” was created in the Convent of Santa Rosa in 1681, by Sor Andrea de la Asunción.

Another popular myth is that the Mole Poblano was created accidentally, while dinner was being prepared for Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, who served as the Bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles from 1640 to 1655.

Then Fray Pascual was about to store some chili peppers and ingredients in the cupboard, but he tripped and accidentally dropped all of the said spices into the pan where the turkey was being cooked at that moment.

These stories should be taken as folklore, without any historical rigor. The real history of Mole Poblano dates back to pre-Hispanic times, but it was during the Viceroyalty then this dish achieved its gastronomic complexity.

Mole Poblano has almost become a symbol of Mexican cuisine.

In the beginning, it was a multi-ingredient sauce poured over a turkey. Although today it is more often used with chicken or meat, the Mole Poblano is still one of the most characteristic and emblematic dishes of Puebla.

The city of Puebla was the cradle of colonial gastronomy and functioned as a collection center for all the ingredients and products obtained in the Spanish colonies to be distributed and sent to the rest of the country.

Puebla was the epicenter of flavors, aromas, and products from almost all over the world that today converge in that single dish.

Mole Poblano facts through the history

Mole Poblano in pre-Hispanic times

The first mentions of the mole that we know of are found in the “General History of Things in New Spain” by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún.

The “mole” has ancient roots since the term mole is derived from the Nahuatl word “mulli” which by coincidence means “to grind” (“moler”) in Spanish since the ingredients of the “mulli” were ground in some kind of a carved stone mortar.

The “moles” had a ritual character, as in the case of the Aztecs who offered them as thanks to Xiuhtecuhtli (God of fire) for both transcendental events, such as births and marriages, as well as everyday ones, such as having carried out a task well.

Mole Poblano in Colonial times

It was in colonial times that the Mole Poblano was closest to the recipe we know today. It was also at that time that the different myths surrounding his birth began to emerge and spread in the late twenties of the last century.

We must remember that the state of Puebla in the Viceregal era extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, until, in 1849, the state of Guerrero was created. Thanks to this, some elements brought by the Manila Galleon, better known as the Nao de China, were also incorporated into the Mole Poblano.

The Mole Poblano incorporates oriental condiments such as cloves, cinnamon, cumin, black pepper, anise, coriander seed, and scented herbs of European origin such as thyme and marjoram. This is what differentiates it from other “mole” throughout the country, which remain almost identical to their pre-Hispanic versions.

Also during that historical stage, pork and its lard, hen, chicken, goat, dried meat, and sheep began to be added to the “mole” and gradually took the place of the turkey, the iguana, the duck, the armadillo, or opossum.

From 1550, clay pots or pots from Talavera began to be used, displaying the indigenous, Arab, Flemish, and Chinese influences of the 18th century.

The first antecedent of the Mole Poblano is found only in the Novohispano Recipe book, from 1791. This manuscript, found in the General Archive of the Nation, mentions the Mole Poblano, whose ingredients are:

“Toasted sesame seeds, chili seeds, coriander, cumin, garlic, cloves, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, soaked ancho chili, roasted ancho chili, tomatoes, and cooked tomatoes, which are ground and fried in very hot butter”.

Neither this manuscript nor any other known book mentions the specific place where the Mole Poblano was created. Mole Poblano is the legacy of a long culinary journey that began in pre-Hispanic times, reached its peak in the viceroyalty, but continues to evolve to this day.

Post Independence epoch

After Independence, a process of pride and dissemination of Mexican cuisine begins in books such as El Cocinero Mexicano, from 1831, in which different “mole” appear, among them, the Mole Poblano.

In post-revolutionary times, the sum of inspirations from almost three centuries already outlines a prototype of the Mole Poblano:

“It has four varieties of chiles: anchos, pasillas, Mulato and chipotle; sesame seeds, almonds, walnuts, and peanuts; chocolate; oriental spices (cloves, pepper, and cinnamon); toasted wheat bread and corn tortilla; anise, raisins, coriander, onion, and garlic; tomato and tomato. Of course, it is prepared with lard, sugar, and salt. All this adds up to 25 ingredients.”

Mole Poblano in our days

To give Mexican cuisine its rightful place as one of the best in the world, and the first recognized by UNESCO as such, it is essential to recognize its origins, evolution, and strength of both its roots, in cases where the original recipes are maintained from pre-Hispanic times in many corners of Mexico, as well as its cultural continuity, which knew how to adapt foreign legacies to enrich, even more, the ancestral flavors of the pre-Hispanic “mulli”.

There was no chocolate in the first mole, so it cannot be attributed to chocolate sauces, its structure is much more complicated and requires careful preparation. Since then, the “mole” has been the quintessential festive dish throughout the country, although very different from how it is currently known.

The first “mole” did not have ingredients such as lard, onion, or nuts.

Nor was it accompanied by pork or chicken because they did not exist in the pre-Hispanic gastronomic landscape. It was then, the combination of ashes, chili peppers, and herbs that was more like a paste.

This dish has evolved over the years, thus adapting to the new ingredients that are used in cooking and in the region where it is produced.

Today, there are more than 50 varieties of “mole” throughout the country in addition to the Mole Poblano, what identifies them is the grinding of chili peppers and spices as the basis for their preparation.


The Mole Poblano is prepared with ingredients such as dark chocolate, ancho chilies, Mulato chilies, pasilla chilies, chile chipotle, almonds, banana, walnuts, raisins, sesame, cloves, cinnamon, parsley, pepper, onion, and garlic.

All chiles must be toasted, the seeds removed, and then soaked in salted water overnight, one day before preparing the mole. The correct proportions do not really exist, and some ingredients may be omitted or vary in proportion.

The dish usually is accompanied by chicken and served with tortillas.

Mole Poblano used to be served with turkey, however, nowadays chicken is often used, making the recipe even more popular. The dish is served sprinkled with sesame seeds and topped with rice.

You can save your time if you know how to make rice in the microwave.

You can create quick dishes such as “enchiladas” (tortillas) stuffed with shredded chicken and covered with a savory Mole Poblano. These “enchiladas” are so easy to make with ready-to-serve “mole” and rotisserie chicken.

This dish does not disappoint any palate, it satisfies salty, spicy, and sweet tastes.

The Mole Poblano festival

This symbolic delicacy has its own party: the Mole Poblano festival, which has been held every June since 1991 with the cooperation of the National Chamber of Restaurant and Food Industry.

The festival includes exhibitions, artistic events, gastronomic workshops, and the “The Best Mole” contest. This cultural event is much loved and is celebrated in Puebla City and all municipalities of the state of Puebla.

The main venue is the Santa Rosa Cultural Center in Puebla City, a beautiful place where it is said that this culinary miracle was created in its kitchen, covered in Talavera tiles.

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